Key Elevator Components

Cabin/Car

This is the main section of Elevator that is intended for enclosed transport of goods & passengers

Cable (Rope).

It is used to support the vehicle (passing the drive sheave over to the counterweight) and pull it. The number of lays will vary depending on the speed and load.

Elevator Machine

All types of traction lift parts require a traction machine. A standard traction machine is composed of a motor and drive sheave. It also has a brake, machine bedplate, and brake. The driveshaft is turned by the traction machine motor to drive the drive sheave. The sheave rotates and the hoist ropes pass through the drive sheave to pull the car along the hoistway.

Controller

An elevator controller is a system that controls the elevators manually or automatically.
The controller will usually reduce the voltage from 12V to 24V to control the system. Only the motor requires a 3-phase power supply. A low voltage power supply is used to power the control component and fixtures that control the elevator.

Drive unit

Everything that operates under electricity must have an attached motor for its functioning.

The counterweight

Elevators work slightly differently from hoists in practice. A heavy counterweight is used to balance the elevator car. It weighs approximately the same as the car loaded with 40-50%. This means that the car’s weight plus 40-50% of its total weight. The counterweight is lowered when the elevator goes up. This helps us in four different ways.

  • The motor can raise or lower the car easier with the counterweight. It’s similar to how sitting on a saw-saw makes it easier to lift someone’s body weight than lifting them in your arms. The motor uses less force to move the car up or down because of the counterweight. If the car and its contents weigh more than the counterweight, the motor only needs to lift the difference and provide a little extra force to overcome friction in pulleys.
  • Because less force is required, the cables are less stressed. This makes the elevator safer.
  • The motor’s energy consumption is reduced by the counterweight. Anyone who has ever sat on see-saws will know this intuitively: If the see-saw is balanced properly, you can move up and down endlessly without getting tired.You can tire yourself very quickly by lifting someone with your arms. The second point is also true: If the motor uses less force to move the vehicle the same distance, it is doing less against gravity.
  • Counterweights reduce the elevator’s need to break. If there was no counterweight, an elevator car with a lot of weight would struggle to pull up but would race to the ground on its return trip if it didn’t have a sturdy brake to stop it. It is much easier to control an elevator car with a counterweight.

Hoistway

This is the area enclosed by fireproof walls or elevator doors that allow for one or more elevators to travel, dumbwaiters, or material lifts. It includes the pit and ends at the floor of overhead machinery space or grating.

Guide Rails

Sections of steel T-shaped or formed with guiding surfaces installed vertically on a hoistway to direct and guide the travel of an elevator car.

Buffers

A buffer is an apparatus at the bottom of an elevator that protects people. Buffers can be used to stop a car from falling by accumulating or dissipating its kinetic energy.

Speed governors

A governor is an independent speed-regulating system found in most elevators. It is a flywheel that has mechanical arms inside. The arms are normally held within the flywheel by springs. However, if the lift moves too quickly, it will fly outward pushing a lever mechanism that trips one or more of the braking systems. They might reduce power to the lift motor. If this fails, and the lift accelerates further, the arms will fly even more and trip another mechanism. This applies to the brakes. Some governors use only mechanical components, others are electromagnetic and others combine electronic and mechanical components.

The safety brake

Everybody who has ever used an elevator knows the feeling: What if the cable that holds it all snaps suddenly? There’s nothing to be concerned about. A variety of safety devices prevent an elevator car from falling to the ground if the cable breaks.

The cars ran between two vertical guides rails that had metal teeth embedded all the length. Each car had a spring-loaded mechanism that was attached to hooks at the top. The hooks were attached to the top of each car and sprung outward if the cable was broken. They then jammed into the guide rails’ metal teeth, locking the car in place.

Doors

Elevator doors can also be used for exit and entry as normal doors. There are two types of elevator doors: Automatic and manual.

  • Manual doors These doors can be opened by a person who wishes to use the lift.
  • Automat doors: These doors can be opened automatically when the door operator opens them. They usually have a full-height photo-electric curtain that senses the person entering/exiting the door.

Hydraulic

  • Car
  • Powerpack/ Piston
  • Elevator Machine
  • Controls
  • Hoisting method
  • Rails
  • Car Buffer

 

Leave a Reply